A completely new class of red mud flocculants which have a unique hydroxamated structure has been developed for use in the Bayer process. Products have been made available in a user-friendly liquid form and these have been extensively tested by the industry over the past four years. This paper reviews many of the observations relating to product application and performance which has been accumulated over that time. The new flocculants have overcome many of the performance deficiencies inherent with traditional starch and polyacrylate flocculants, leading to a wide range of benefits being obtained. These include the ability to flocculate difficult bauxites, increase settler flow rates, improve clarities, increase filtration rates, improve liquor and product quality, eliminate starch, reduce lime use, improve mud rheology, increase underflow density, and increase A/C ratios. The new flocculants are in continuous use at thirteen of the major refineries worldwide.